Mental Health and Entrepreneurship

It was a quiet Sunday evening, and I had just got back from a holiday in Portugal. I was in the middle of trying to change a lightbulb (true progress on the DIY front for me), and I felt the need to tell Rich, my co-founder, about a feeling that had been consuming me for three weeks or so.

I had been filled by a pretty deep sadness. It wasn’t about any one thing in particular, but it made my tasks seem less achievable. Goals seemed further away, my connection to those around me seemed dull and dampened. Very unlike me, I was low on energy.

Rich discussed it with me whilst observing my miserable efforts with the lightbulb. We arrived at the conclusion that a faint imposter syndrome had turned into the start of a feeling that seemed much like depression. Without necessarily trying to solve the problem immediately, the simple act of telling Rich how I actually felt, made a substantial difference for me.

From my experience, mental health is a topic that gets ignored in entrepreneurship.

Whether it’s the stigma that still surrounds it, or if it’s how the media glamorizes working ourselves to the ground, it seems undeniable that founders aren’t paying enough attention to their own emotions yet.

It gets scarier when you look at how entrepreneurs define their identities. Typically, as James and I mention here, your identity is inextricably linked to your startup. I.e. Fraser = Repairly, James = Sanctus.

It’s an interesting paradigm. When you’re winning, you’re really winning. It means that you hustle harder: when your sense of worth is derived from your business succeeding, you have a strong imperative to push for growth.

But, you’ll also run into this:

There’s a lot of up and downs on there. The more attached your identity is to your startup’s success, the more your emotions will peak and crash. It’s pretty brutal, in my experience.

This is where techniques to manage your mental health are seriously powerful. They won’t stop your emotions from swinging. But, having your mental health in check will bring emotions to a more stable equilibrium.

In the long term, I believe this will make you a more effective entrepreneur. Your cognition will be less loaded with unhelpful emotions, giving you more optimism, greater clarity of thought, more empathy, more creativity… and the list goes on.

To get started on understanding your mental health, check out the clip below. There’s plenty of discussion on the topic, as well as suggestions for getting started with techniques such as meditation and awareness practice.

 

This was originally published on Repairly’s blog








Mental Health and Wellness in the Startup Realm

During my relatively short six-year journey through the startup landscape- I’ve been through ugly founder breakups, I’ve lost plenty of money, way too much time, and I ended up in the hospital from exhaustion from too many 100 hour weeks.

That’s just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the reality of building new companies. I know of suicides, families being torn apart and of course, severe depression.

While it can be exhilarating to be an entrepreneur or to work as a member of a startup, it’s most certainly a roller-coaster of emotions- and it often goes on for YEARS.

Successes are often followed by disappointments and just being able to process the complexities of legal agreements, founder disputes, hiring and firing employees, scaling or downsizing, taking on funding, failing, iterating…you get the point.

It can and does boggle the mind.

The most helpful thing for me personally was to be able to compare notes on a regular basis with my fellow entrepreneurs who were going through similar challenges. Even with a monthly ‘therapy’ session with my brothers-and-sisters-in-arms, my stress levels remained incredibly high and exercise and meditation were barely addressing my issues.  Alcohol helped- only for a few hours- and of course, the next day – I was never at my best, unable to focus or be productive.

The good news is I’m not alone – nor do I feel that way. (I certainly also recognize these issues are not unique to startups and they’ve been around for millennia).

One of my missions in the coming weeks, months and years is to provide my fellow startup enthusiasts and entrepreneurs with tools to become more educated, less stressed, more productive and more focused when it comes to their wellness- despite the constant barrage of change and tribulation.

My first public effort of this sort was to help moderate a discussion during the 2016 Boulder Startup Week with some of the most prolific and respected names in startups including Brad FeldJerry Colonna and Tom Higley.  A key portion of this event was a long Q&A session with the audience to ensure folks can get answers they need. Each panelist had important personal stories to share, and tools and modalities to recommend.

None of us pretend to have all the answers- but each of us has enough experience to know that it’s a fools errand to not listen to those who have been through it before. If we can help even one person who needs it- it will be worthwhile.

I believe the first step in this process is to eliminate the stigma associated with mental health issues in the entrepreneurial/startup realm. This will only happen when we openly and regularly discuss the issues, demonstrate that it’s ‘human’ to have these challenges and to share our stories of how we’ve overcome them.

I will personally continue to explore healthy alternatives and approaches to my own stress including different mindfulness techniques, exercise that requires being fully present, and yes, therapy.

I also look forward to finding more colleagues and partners that are passionate about this subject.

To that end- I look forward to building further interactive and truly immersive programs in Colorado focused on entrepreneur wellbeing. I know we can help our colleagues lead healthier, more productive and happier lives. The impact of that can’t be understated.

I hope you’ll join me.

Techstars put together a list of resources for anyone who thinks they may be suffering from mental health issues, or anyone who wants to learn more about the topic. You can find them here. 

Join us on 5/25 for a live, interactive AMA to hear more about this important topic and how we can all help out in our communities. We’ll be joined by Brad Feld, Managing Director at Foundry Group, and co-founder of Techstars. Register here








How To Avoid Burnout

The startup life is an intense and intensely personal experience.

Poet David Whyte said, “Work is where we can make ourselves; work is where we can break ourselves.” We’ve seen so much of the making and breaking in this world of fast paced startups, big exits and failures. Perhaps the greatest detriment has been the rise in burnout and depression in the startup community.

What follows is our absolute best advice on how to navigate the startup world without losing yourself in the fire.

It starts with radical self inquiry.

What is Work?

More importantly, what is your relationship to work? As humans, we work for purpose and meaning, to create value in the world and for money. Yet very few of us take the time to explore what work truly means to us and where we first learned our beliefs about work.

What is work to you? Is it your job or your joy? What did you parents teach you about work? How did they relate to work? What is your relationship to work right now? What is success to you? What is failure?

We bring a lot to work, and we check a lot of ourselves at the door of our respective workplaces before we enter. When you understand the story under the story of your relationship to work, or discover what is truly driving you, a new understanding of why you do what you do may surface. Apperception is the gateway to stronger decision making.

When it comes to finding meaningful work, know what connects you to your purpose and commit to align with it often.

What parts of you show up at work? How can you bring your wholeness into work?

Embrace Vulnerability

How’s your heart? How do you feel? What are you not saying that needs to be said?

Startups are stressful. They can be incredibly lonely, frustrating, disappointing, overwhelming — and a whole host of other emotions. If these emotions are not released or are stuffed down and tucked away for later, they can compound in their intensity just under the surface of you. Allowing yourself to get comfortable with vulnerability can diffuse stress and cortisol build-up caused by the extremes of the startup life.

Start by voicing your feelings, even if it’s just to yourself or your journal. Take refuge in the private pages of your always-there-for-you journal and let your pen do the writing. The stream of consciousness style of writing helps to release thoughts, emotions and other mental tangles that may be weighing heavily on you.

Working with a coach can create space for you to open up and receive support to shift from draining habits and patterns to more life-giving ways of being. Connecting to a community of peers allows you to find a sense of safety and belonging.

Be honest, bold and real with yourself.

Know Your Flow

When hard work equates to constant stress, you won’t produce good results. From a neurological perspective, working with a brain constantly in survival mode — from a place of fight or flight — is the fastest way to deplete your resources as a human being, and can tank your ability to be an effective leader.

There is a powerful engagement in the oscillation between the states of optimal performance and recovery that is your prime resource of creativity. To work hard and work better, you need to be alive — you need to learn what it takes for you to be in your creative flow.

How do you work best? How do you show up on your best days? What do you do to show up on your best days (eat well, sleep well, exercise, play, etc.)? What can you do to support yourself so that you can show up like that more often?

Look Fear in the Face

What are you afraid of? What are you afraid of? What are you afraid of?

As humans we fear many things that compromise our sense of safety, love and belonging. We also fear uncertainty — and startups are a sea of uncertainty. When it comes to fear and failure in our startup saturated lives, it’s good to know what fears are at play for you.

Your fear has much to teach you. Be brave enough to ask yourself in moments what you might be afraid of. Trace your responses and inquire deeper. Voicing your fears is to know what underlying stuff you’re working with and what may be unconsciously driving you.

Until you get to the root of that fear, it can consume you and keep you from a fulfilling life. What is the fear you’re running away from? What will it take to admit and surrender to it?

How might you do something differently if you weren’t afraid? What would you dare to ask for?

Know Yourself

Being a leader requires a cultivated depth of self-knowledge and awareness. Take some time to reflect on the following:

What do you really believe? What is your vision for your life? What values do you hold? What kind of company do you want to build? What kind of adult do you want to be? How do you want to be remembered? How do you want to feel in your days?

Rooting and Rituals

Once you begin the unfolding of who you are and want to be in the world, you can build that into your daily patterns and create that life for yourself day by day.

Personal rituals can help you connect to who you are and your purpose, and provide a center to orient your day around. Develop a habit of grounding to remember those important things — who you are, what you believe, what your vision is and what your intentions are for the day. These are your Polaris, your living why. Giving yourself this time for you can affect all the choices you make in your day.

What are rituals and things you can do to nourish your deepest sense of self daily? How can you slow down and find the pause in your day?

Relax

Learning to relax and lighten up is the key to your sustainability, resiliency, agility as a leader in your life, work and relationships. And, relaxation is the key to creativity.

How do you play? How do you unplug and recharge? What fuels your spirit? How can you create unburdened moments into your days?

“The opposite of play is not work. It’s depression.” — Stuart Brown

Create spaces in your days that are unburdened and you are connected to your most intimate being and to your community.

What is the change you want to see and bring to the world? Startups begin with an amazing idea that sparked a successful company doing great, new things.

In the rapid growth of startup life, it’s important to reconnect to those moments that bring you alive and to cultivate more moments like that. That’s where your next great idea is going to come from.

Techstars put together a list of resources for anyone who thinks they may be suffering from mental health issues, or anyone who wants to learn more about the topic. You can find them here. 








You Do Not Overcome Depression, You Move Through It

May is Mental Health month. This is the next post in our series on depression and the startup community. 

I like formulas. I like checklists. I like one, two, threes. Dotted i’s and crossed t’s. I like it when all I have to do is put in the work and I’ll get the promised outcome. I don’t care if the work is hard or messy, if you tell me that if I just do A, I will get desired result B, I’ll do it.

I’ve had the good fortune to work with Jerry and Parker Palmer over the last few months on a to be published book discussing depression and entrepreneurship. Jerry and Parker both have a gift for articulating the experience of depression. As we’ve worked on the manuscript I’ve often found comfort in their ability to express in words what I myself have experienced, but not articulated. There is a great comfort and hope that comes from the connection of shared experience, especially when in its depths depression is so deeply isolating.

The journey of entrepreneurship and the “startup life” are the human experience at extremes. When life can feel so polarized, it is not surprising that many on this path find themselves suffering from depression. The past few months have been a hopeful time to be paying attention to this topic as progressively more individuals have opened up about their experiences, media has published multiple articles on the subject and new technologies to support those who are suffering have been introduced.

Each of these can be incredibly useful. The importance of understanding that you are not alone in depression is tantamount to surviving its lowest depths. And any effort to bring comfort and hope to those suffering is something I can get behind. Yet, with this growing interest and awareness comes what I find to be a troubling idea: that there is an easy solution to overcome your depression.

Let’s be clear: there is no solution to depression. There is no formula, there is no checklist, there is no one, two, three; no A, B, C. Depression is not a thing you overcome, it is something you move through.

Allow me, or better, allow Jerry Colonna and Parker Palmer to explain. The following is an excerpt from a 2013 discussion between Jerry and Parker at Naropa University about entrepreneurship and depression:

In the startup world there is such a profound reliance on the intellect. There is such a profound belief. We were talking about our friend Brad Feld’s recent postings and some of the comments, looking for what feels as if a willful doing, in response to the pressure. Take more Vitamin D — which, by the way, is really great. Get more sunlight, which is really great. Get more exercise, which is really great. But there’s a relationship, I think, between learning to accept being, learning to accept the authentic self, and learning not to rely so much on the doing as a pathway through this.

We have so much in this culture that’s about pull yourself up by your own bootstraps, but in the depths of this thing, you don’t have boots, let alone bootstraps. And that has to be recognized. You’re forced back on something more primitive in the human self, more original, more spare, more wild, really. And to live from that place without the hubris that says, “I can solve everything with my intellect.” And then, to fall into the despair of, “Well, why isn’t it happening?”.

Depression is not a life sentence. We do not have to sit idly by doing nothing. This is not an argument against action. Rather it is an imploring to abandon expectation. To understand that depression is not formulaic. It doesn’t follow the rules. You can’t work your way out of depression. It takes what it takes to move through depression. And “what it takes” is not a universal solution.

Originally posted on Medium








Depression and the Startup Community

May is Mental Health month. This is the first post in a series on depression and the startup community. 

Know that you are not alone.

Depression lies. It tells us that we are the only person who has felt loss, who has felt failure, who has felt desperation, who has felt nothing. This simply is not true.

There are litanies of other people who have felt this way. And progressively more and more people in the startup community are opening up to share their personal experiences every day. Brad Feld, Tim Ferris, Ben Huh, Jason Calacanis, Rand Fishkin, Andy Sparks, and many more have shared their experiences.

Connect

It is one thing to intellectually know that you are not alone. It is another to feel it in your heart. When we open our heart and mouth to share with another, we move and transform energy.

Start simple. Talk with a friend, a colleague, a co-founder, a coach, a therapist, anyone you feel you can be honest with and who will respect you where you’re at. Be honest. Let them listen. Make sure they understand their role is to hold space for you, not to fix you. If this feels like too much, dogs and journals are amazing listeners. Just start sharing somewhere, in some way.

When you feel ready, connecting with an intentional, structured community of peers can be transformative. At Reboot, we are greatly inspired by the work of the Center for Courage and Renewal’s Circles of Trust. These structured groups support each participant’s inner journey. A trusted, purposeful group of peers keep us moving along the path of our own heart.

Be

As I previously shared, I believe that you do not overcome depression, you move through it. Depression does not have a timetable, a to-do list or operation manual. In depression, effort does not equate outcome.

There is a peace to be found when we surrender the outcome. To surrender, even if just for today, to the practice, the art of being instead of the result. To honor where we are at, what we feel, to be with what is happening.

Our friend Parker Palmer describes the depressed soul as a wild animal in the woods. Of this animal he says:

It is very shy. It it runs away when someone comes crashing into the woods, screaming for it to come out. wild animal comes out when somebody’s willing to walk in the forest, the dark forest of my life at that time, sit quietly at the base of the tree, breathe with the earth, and just wait for it to put in an appearance, and then quietly relate to it any way they can, helping me to honor that primitive life in myself because they’re honoring it and they’re seeing the spark.

At the end of the day, I don’t have the answer. You do. This is merely a list of things which I, and other members of the Reboot team have found helpful through our personal experiences with depression. It’s not intended to be a comprehensive list.

Many people who suffer from depression need the help of medical professionals (and yes, medications). I did.

Originally posted on Medium.








It’s Not You, It’s The Startup Life

1*Yccg2uF4HViEOxBByYEzGw

Thanks to our friend, Sarah Jane Coffey, over at Reboot.io, for this incredible piece on mental health & startups. We thought it was so important we wanted to share it with our audience. Originally posted on Medium

My startup story starts in Loveland, Colorado. I had shimmed my degree in electronic media into a project management position at a fast-growing, then fast-failing company. Founded by a dot com success story, the company sold educational resources to aspiring entrepreneurs.

It was my first taste of the entrepreneurial adventure. I loved the fast pace, experimental nature and rollercoaster descents of fast success. My years there were also littered with dysfunction (a fair share my own), poor leadership and management. Eventually that company’s growth bubble burst and I was laid off alongside a large number of colleagues.

It was during that role that I first learned of the burgeoning Boulder startup scene. I cultivated an obsession over startuppers’ Twitter feeds, devoured episodes of Techstars’ “The Founders” and I was soon making regular trips to attend Ignites, meetups, and the first Boulder Startup Week.

I made the leap and relocated to Boulder. My goal was to continue consulting and to network in hopes of find a community manager job at a proprietary tech startup within a year. My first Tuesday as a Boulder resident I attended #BOCC, the weekly startup coffee meetup. I introduced myself as new to town and said I was looking for a community manager role at a startup.

Two weeks later I met the co-founders of what would become my first real startup role. We chatted for roughly 90 minutes. I listened far more than I talked. The technology behind what they were building was fascinating. They oozed passion and excitement for where they would go next. I had never thought I would work around such wildly intelligent, innovative, driven people.

When we met a little over a week later, I was handed an offer letter. When they asked if I had questions for them I was so dumbfounded by my grand strike of luck (only two weeks to find my dream job!) I said nothing.

I had no idea of what I would actually even be doing. But it didn’t matter. It was happening. I was going to work at a real, bonafide startup.

My start date was set for two weeks later. The night before I began one of the co-founders emailed me to ask me if I had a computer and could I bring it with me the next day. I found it a little odd, but brushed it off as a byproduct of moving fast.

The first few weeks were a blur. I was the first non-engineer at the company, as well as the first woman. I told myself I was up for the challenge. We were building something! We were moving fast! I was tough. I was blazing trails for the women who would come after me. I eschewed pangs of confusion and uncertainty as the normal feeling of inadequacy you get at any new role. I didn’t dare share with anyone that I had no idea what I was ultimately responsible for, what would count as a win in my role, or even what expectations of me were.

I attempted to subdue those fears by working a lot. A lot. There were nights when I would ride my bike home at 9 p.m. or 10 p.m., only to open my laptop again and continue working after I got home. I spent time over weekends logged in making sure our help desk was empty or in the office trying to finish the project I hoped would make me feel secure there. I would kill my alarm and open my email with one swift motion each morning. I still couldn’t really explain what I was doing. Or what my role was.

Around six months after I started the founders called me into the conference room. Certain that I was getting fired, I had to put my hands under the table so they couldn’t see them shaking. They told me they were happy with me and gave me a raise. I left feeling more confused than ever. I felt like a failure day in and day out coming to the office. But people who are failing don’t get raises, right?

It wasn’t long until I was retreating from the office to cry in the bathroom two to three times a week. While there were specific instances warranting tears, more often I cried out of a potent blend of overwhelm: a fear of not knowing what would happen next, what I was supposed to be doing, the weight of being the empathetic ear in an environment where other people were struggling. I was barely carrying my own burdens and I was adding others’ by the day.

During this time I was also very involved in the startup community around Boulder. I was a die hard regular at #BOCC, attended Ignite, helped organize events for Boulder Startup Week, and made regular appearances at a litany of other startup and tech events. If you met me during this time, you would have never known how awful I truly felt. I regularly espoused how amazing things were. How excited and grateful I was for my job. How wonderful it was to be a proxy to what the engineers I worked with were building. Sure the hours were long and things felt cobbled together, but startup life, right? Work hard, play hard! I dare not confide that it had been months since I had experienced play, let alone rest.

Not only was I not confiding in anyone, I was in outright denial. My (now) husband and I were living together. My laptop, iPad, or phone were a consistent third wheel. I would complain about stress or talk about dysfunction at work but would get angry or resentful if he were to suggest perhaps I find something else. Or that the job was taking a toll on my well-being and our relationship. Recently engaged, I invited both families to our house for Thanksgiving dinner, our first blended family event. I cooked a full Thanksgiving meal in between furious and panicked typing at my computer as something exploded at work. Our families introduced themselves to each other. I barely stopped responding to emails for 30 minutes to eat. My husband did the dishes.

At 3 a.m. 364 days after I had started at the company, my husband was awoken by the light of my iPhone as I panickedly check for emails I wasn’t even expecting but could possibly be coming.

I couldn’t miss anything. I would fail. I would get fired. People would know. I would be nothing. I started crying and pacing the room insanely and I couldn’t stop.

I could no longer deny that something was wrong.

My husband convinced me to stay home from work the next day and see my doctor. I left her office with prescriptions for antidepressants and a fast-acting anti-anxiety medication. I took my first pills a few hours after the appointment. As the anti-anxiety medication set in, my heart and mind slowed for the first time in months. I felt a calm set in that I hadn’t felt in a year. My head came up from under the waves. I hadn’t even known I was underwater. I had been drowning and never noticed I was wet.

The next day, my 365th, I resigned my position. I began seeing a therapist twice a week. Under her and my doctor’s guidance, I took antidepressants as prescribed for over a year. The therapist guided me through looking at my experience, my feelings of (un)worthiness, my relationship to work. What I originally had thought was a long hard road to feeling normal took less than a month. I never refilled the anti-anxiety medication again.

1*uT3ELhLGu8HcNIytAmUi7A

It’s been more than five years since I left that company. I’ve worked in and around nothing but startups in the years since. I don’t have a perfect track record of mental health (we’ll save the bramble patch that is postpartum for another day), but I’ve never woken at 3 a.m. to check my email since. It can wait. And it’s not worth it.

At first, I was extremely sheepish of sharing my story with others. I shared the full truth with only a few select friends. I made excuses to almost everyone else. I carried the weight of embarrassment and shame. Then slowly I started trusting and sharing more of the truth with fellow startup friends. Behind closed doors, in hushed tones over coffees, friends in turn related their similar experiences to me.

They had tumbled down the rabbit hole in pursuit of the startup life too.

There’s been a promising turnaround in the story of startups and mental health during the last few years as first investors, then founders, have begun to share their struggles with depression, burnout and mental health challenges faced in the startup world. Popular articles around the high stakes of entrepreneurship have helped to bring awareness to the issue. This ongoing conversation is a wonderful development, but the conversation still skews heavily male, heavily white, heavily financially successful, and heavily those in leadership positions.

The challenges and burdens of the startup life extend far beyond these demographics and the board room. Startup team members’ struggles with depression and mental health are just as worthy of attention and care. Team members need to be included in these discussions, in research projects, and in awareness efforts. These challenges do not discriminate.

I hope investors, board members, and mentors will consider their role in this cycle. Just as it is being expressed that no company is worth a founder’s life, I hope you can express the same is true for their team members. Most importantly to founders and leadership who set the tone and culture for teams.

If you are at a startup and struggling, first and foremost: You are not alone. You are not crazy. You are not a failure.

The demands of the startup life can be unrealistic and unrelenting, not to mention not worth it. It’s OK to decide that an environment or expectation is not right for you. There are startups that are healthy, caring, professional (not a dirty word!), sane environments and they’re probably hiring talented people just like you.

Just as the narrative is moving away from glamorizing the founder experience, let’s do the same for team members working at startups. Working at startups can be incredibly challenging for everyone. It is OK to need time off and away from your phones and devices. It is OK to want functioning, adult, professional leadership. It is OK to want a clear understanding of the expectations of you and to communicate your expectations of your employer in return. It is OK to tell people that your startup is hard or dysfunctional or that working there really sucks right now. It is OK to leave and find something that is a better fit for you. You don’t have to sacrifice yourself to be valuable.

My story isn’t really unique to startups. Startup culture propagates a story: normal jobs are boring. Startups are exciting and different. Startup people are extraordinary and special. Working at a startup allows you to have a bigger impact on the world. Working at a startup can be more fulfilling than traditional work.

I was drawn to the startup life with dangerous baggage: a deep-rooted belief that I was unworthy. I grabbed hold and clenched my fists around the startup life story determined to wrest my own postscript:

If I startup hard enough, a startup will fulfill and validate me as a human being.

I wasn’t waking up at 3 a.m.to check emails because I was worried I would get fired. I was waking up at 3 a.m. to check emails because I didn’t believe that at my human core, I was enough.

This is not unique. Our society and culture are addicted to defining our sense of worth from work. Startups merely accelerate and exacerbate this toxic and dangerous belief system.

After sharing an early draft of this post with my colleagues, Jerry Colonna gently pointed out to me that if we bring our suffering to work and try to use the work to stop our suffering, we run the risk of turning work into a form of violence, regardless of whether or not we work at a startup or have power over another. It was a shattering insight. My painful experience undoubtedly reverberated in those around me.

Today I work at a startup that works with startup leaders to end what Jerry refers to as violence in the workplace. Violence is his word for the emotional turmoil and turbulence that I, and so many, have experienced. Reboot is the most adult, caring, empowering, and effective professional environment I have ever been in. I accomplish more high-quality work in less hours than I ever have before. It’s not perfect (spoiler alert: nothing is) and I have cried there, but tears and struggles have been met by empathetic and curious colleagues who have been willing to walk into issues and challenges with me as opposed to brushing them under the keg. It is what Reboot inspiration David Whyte calls, “Good work, done well, for the right reasons.”

This doesn’t need to be a unique experience. If there is anything I have learned from my experience in startups, it’s that if something is deemed valuable enough, enough of a priority, it will be. I can’t think of anything more worthy than this.

Roller Coaster photo credit: J Jakobson under Creative Commons license. Gratitude to Jerry Colonna, Cali Harris, Ali Schultz, Eoin Coffey and Julie Sutter who read early drafts and helped shape this post.